I'm looking for evidence or any supporting literature in reference to "bubble studies."Â Â I'd never heard of bubble studies beforeÂ andÂ everyoneÂ may beÂ doing them I just can't find any available literature.Â
For those not familiar with bubble studies,they are done duringÂ both TEEs and TTEs.Â The nurse mixes one ml of air into 9 ml of sterile saline (agitatingÂ the salineÂ by forcing it between two syringes connected by a stopcock).Â When the technician and/or physician is ready, the saline (containing 1 ml of bubbles) is released through the stopcock and into the patient in order to see if the champagne of bubbles crosses the ventricular septum.Â It creates a pretty casade on the echo screen rather like fireflies dancing across the heart.
Anyway, the staff nurses are concerned about the practice esp. since the procedureÂ may beÂ repeated 3 or more times to insure an adequate echo study.Â Is this a case of no-harm-no-foul or should we be concerned with this practice?Â
Thanks in advance,Â