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Celeste Phillips
IV skin prep

We are updating our IV policies to reflect the 2011 CDC and INS guidelines.  My questions are

1.  The CDC guidelines state to prepare skin with chlorhexidine with alcohol for central venous catheter insertion and dressing change and if there is a contradindication to chlorhexidine, to use tincture of iodine, an iodophor or 70% alcohol.  

Why do the 2011 (4th ed) INS guidelines only give a choice between chorhexidine and povidone iodine for this?

2.  I have searched but cannot find the specific recommendation for how long to prep the skin with alcohol for catheter insertion or dressing change other than in the INS guidelines (3rd ed) which recommends  30 seconds with friction.  Where did this recommendation originate?