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closed system

Is anyone aware of any empirical evidence/white papers/research studies related to the importance/value of maintaining a "closed system", as it relates to IV Therapy?

 About 10 years ago, I gave a

 About 10 years ago, I gave a presentation for a BD theater at NAVAN (see how old this is) on the concept of closed systems. I have seen a couple of studies since then from other countries but nothing else. There is no official definition of a closed system. I can be applied to the fluid container (plastic bag would be closed vs a glass bottle), the IV administration sets (those without injection sites would be closed), and the catheter itself (those with a permanently attached extension set are labeled as closed). The studies I have seen are from Mexico and compare the lower infection rates from closed fluid containers. Lynn


Lynn Hadaway, M.Ed., RN, BC, CRNI

Lynn Hadaway Associates, Inc.

126 Main Street, PO Box 10

Milner, GA 30257


Office Phone 770-358-7861

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