References - Flushing VADs

Thanks to Lynn Hadaway

 

Technology of Flushing Vascular Access Devices

References  

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2.             Raad I, Chatzinikolaou I, Chaiban G, et al. In vitro and ex vivo activities of minocycline and EDTA against microorganisms embedded in biofilm on catheter surfaces. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2003;47(11):3580-3585

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.5.             Aiyangar A, Crone W, Crnich C, Maki D. Effect of ethanol on the mechanical properties of polyurethane catheters. Paper presented at: SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, 2002; Milwaukee, WI.  

6.             Wilson J, Cobb D. Updating your multiple-dose vial policy: The background. Hospital Pharmacy. 1998;33:427-432.

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8.             Katzenstein T, Jorgensen L, Permin H, et al. Nosocomial HIV-transmission in an outpatient clinic detected by epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses. AIDS. 1999;13:1737-1744.

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10.       Archibald L, Ramos M, Arduino M, et al. Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial bloodstream infections traced to extrinsic contamination of a dextrose multidose vial. Journal of Pediatrics. 1998;133(5):640-644.

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18.       Chodoff A, Pettis A, Schoonmaker D, Shelly M. Polymicrobial gram-negative bacteremia associated with saline solutions flush used with a needleless intravenous system. American Journal of Infection Control. 1995;23:357-363.

19.       Pegues D, Carson L, Anderson R, et al. Outbreak of Pseudomonas cepacia bacteremia in oncology patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1993;16(3):407-411.

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22.       Worthington T, Tebbs S, Moss H, Bevan V, Kilburn J, Elliott T. Are contaminated flush solutions an overlooked source for catheter-related sepsis? Journal of Hospital Infection. 2001;49(1):81-83.

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24.       Macklin D. What's physics go to do with it? Journal of Vascular Access Devices. 1999;4(2):7-13.

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26.       Cookson S, Ihrig M, O'Mara E, et al. Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Int Journal of Legal Medicine. 1998;19(1):23-27.

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29.       Do A, Ray B, Banerjee S, et al. Bloodstream infection associated with needleless device use and the importance of infection-control practices in the home health care setting. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1999;179(2):442-448.

30.       Donlan R, Murga R, Bell M, et al. Protocol for detection of biofilms on needleless connectors attached to central venous catheters. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2001;39(2):750-753.

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34.       Hoffer E, Bloch R, Borsa J, Santulli P, Fontaine A, Francoeur N. Peripherally inserted central catheters with distal versus proximal valves: Prospective, randomized trial. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2001;12(10):1173-1177.

35.       Hoffer E, Borse J, Santulli P, Bloch R, Fonteine A. Prospective randomized comparison of valved versus nonvalved peripherally inserted central vein catheters. American Journal of Roentgenography. 1999;173:1393-1398.

36.       Closson T, Holmes H, McCoy L. Using new technology to reduce antibiotic therapy costs: A case study. Infusion. 2002(Jan-Feb 2002):18-25.

37.       Jarvis, W., et al. Increased central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection rates temporarily associated with changing from a split-septum to a Luer-access mechanical valve needleless device: A nationawide outbreak? in Association of Practitioners in Infection Control. 2005. Baltimore, MD.

38.       Cosgrove, S., et al. Increase in catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) in pediatric intensive care units temporally associated with a change in the needleless intravenous port. in Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. 2005. Los Angeles, CA: Slack, Inc. .

39.       Karchmer, T., et al. Needleless valve ports may be associated with a high rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection. in Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. 2005. Los Angeles, CA: Slack, Inc.