References - Flushing VADs

Thanks to Lynn Hadaway


Technology of Flushing Vascular Access Devices


1.             Chatzinikolaou I, Zipf T, Hanna H, et al. Minocycline-ethylenediamine-tetraaccetate lock solution for the prevention of implantable port infection in children with cancer. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2003;36(1):116-119.

2.             Raad I, Chatzinikolaou I, Chaiban G, et al. In vitro and ex vivo activities of minocycline and EDTA against microorganisms embedded in biofilm on catheter surfaces. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 2003;47(11):3580-3585

.3.             Kite P, Eastwood K, Sugden S, Percival S. Use of in vivo-generated biofilms from hemodialysis catheters to test the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial catheter lock for biofilm eradication in vitro. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004;42(7):3073-3076

.4.             Dannenberg C, Bierbach U, Rothe A, Beer J, Lorholz D. Ethanol-lock technique in the treatment of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients with broviac catheters. Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology. 2003;25(8):616-621

.5.             Aiyangar A, Crone W, Crnich C, Maki D. Effect of ethanol on the mechanical properties of polyurethane catheters. Paper presented at: SEM Annual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, 2002; Milwaukee, WI.  

6.             Wilson J, Cobb D. Updating your multiple-dose vial policy: The background. Hospital Pharmacy. 1998;33:427-432.

7.             Kidd-Ljunggren K, Broman E, Ekvall H, Gustavsson O. Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis B virus infection through multiple-dose vials. Journal of Hospital Infection. 1999;43(1):57-62.

8.             Katzenstein T, Jorgensen L, Permin H, et al. Nosocomial HIV-transmission in an outpatient clinic detected by epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses. AIDS. 1999;13:1737-1744.

9.             Krause G, trepka M, Whisenhunt R, et al. Nosocomial transmission of hepatitis C virus associated with the use of multidose saline vials. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24(2):122-127.

10.       Archibald L, Ramos M, Arduino M, et al. Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa polymicrobial bloodstream infections traced to extrinsic contamination of a dextrose multidose vial. Journal of Pediatrics. 1998;133(5):640-644.

11.       Lagging L, Aneman C, Nenonen N, et al. Nosocomial transmission of HCV in a cardiology ward during the window phase of infection: An epidemiological and molecular investigation. Scand Journal of Infect Disease. 2002;34(8):580-582.

12.       Widell A, Christensson B, Wiebe T, et al. Epidemiologic and molecular investigation of outbreaks of hepatitis C virus infection on a pediatric oncology service. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1999;130(2):130-134.

13.       Hutin Y, Godlstein S, Varma J, O'Dair J, Shapiro EMC, Alter M. An outbreak of hospital-acquired hepatitis B virus infection among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20(11):731-735.

14.       Abulrahi H, Bohlega E, Fontaine R, Al-Seghayer S, Al-Ruwais A. Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmitted in hospital through heparin locks. The Lancet. 1997;349:23-25.

15.       MMWR. Transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses in outpatient settings -- New York, Oklahoma, and Nebraska, 2000-2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2003;52(38):901-906.

16.       Mattner F, Gastmeier P. Bacterial contamination of multiple-dose vials; A prevalence study. American Journal of Infection Control. 2004;32(1):12-16.

17.       Goetz A, Rihs J, Chow J, Singh N, Muder R. An outbreak of infusion-related Kelbsiella pneumoniae bacteremai in a liver transplantation unit. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1995;21(6):1501-1503.

18.       Chodoff A, Pettis A, Schoonmaker D, Shelly M. Polymicrobial gram-negative bacteremia associated with saline solutions flush used with a needleless intravenous system. American Journal of Infection Control. 1995;23:357-363.

19.       Pegues D, Carson L, Anderson R, et al. Outbreak of Pseudomonas cepacia bacteremia in oncology patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1993;16(3):407-411.

20.       Cohen M. Intravenous bags as multiple-dose containers pose danger. Hospital Pharmacy. 1994;29:724-725.

21.       Harbarth S, Sudre P, Dharan S, Cadenas M, Pittet D. Outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae related to understaffing, overcrowding, and poor hygiene practices. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999;20(9):598-603.

22.       Worthington T, Tebbs S, Moss H, Bevan V, Kilburn J, Elliott T. Are contaminated flush solutions an overlooked source for catheter-related sepsis? Journal of Hospital Infection. 2001;49(1):81-83.

23.       Calop J, Bosson J, Croize J, Laurent P. Maintenance of peripheral and central intravenous infusion devices by 0.9% sodium chloride with or without heparin as a potential source for catheter microbial contamination. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2000;46:161.

24.       Macklin D. What's physics go to do with it? Journal of Vascular Access Devices. 1999;4(2):7-13.

25.       McDonald L, Banerjee S, Jarvis W. Line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric intensive-care-unit patients associated with a needleless device and intermittent intravenous therapy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998;19(10):772-777.

26.       Cookson S, Ihrig M, O'Mara E, et al. Increased bloodstream infection rates in surgical patients associated with variation from recommended use and care following implementation of a needleless device. Int Journal of Legal Medicine. 1998;19(1):23-27.

27.       Danzig L, Short L, Collins K, et al. Bloodstream infections associated with a needleless intravenous infusion system in patients receiving home infusion therapy. JAMA. 1995;273:1862-1864.

28.       Kellerman S, Shay D, Howard J, et al. Bloodstream infections in home infusion patients: The influence of race and needleless intravascular access devices. Journal of Pediatrics. 1996;129:711-717.

29.       Do A, Ray B, Banerjee S, et al. Bloodstream infection associated with needleless device use and the importance of infection-control practices in the home health care setting. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1999;179(2):442-448.

30.       Donlan R, Murga R, Bell M, et al. Protocol for detection of biofilms on needleless connectors attached to central venous catheters. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2001;39(2):750-753.

31.       Murga R, Miller J, Donlan R. Biofilm formation by gram-negative bacteria on central venous catheter connectors: Effect of conditioning films in a laboratory model. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2001;39(6):2294-2297.

32.       Donlan R. Biofilm formation: A clinically relevant microbiological process. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2001;33:1387-1392.

33.       Donlan R. Biofilms: Microbial life on surfaces. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(9):1-15.

34.       Hoffer E, Bloch R, Borsa J, Santulli P, Fontaine A, Francoeur N. Peripherally inserted central catheters with distal versus proximal valves: Prospective, randomized trial. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 2001;12(10):1173-1177.

35.       Hoffer E, Borse J, Santulli P, Bloch R, Fonteine A. Prospective randomized comparison of valved versus nonvalved peripherally inserted central vein catheters. American Journal of Roentgenography. 1999;173:1393-1398.

36.       Closson T, Holmes H, McCoy L. Using new technology to reduce antibiotic therapy costs: A case study. Infusion. 2002(Jan-Feb 2002):18-25.

37.       Jarvis, W., et al. Increased central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection rates temporarily associated with changing from a split-septum to a Luer-access mechanical valve needleless device: A nationawide outbreak? in Association of Practitioners in Infection Control. 2005. Baltimore, MD.

38.       Cosgrove, S., et al. Increase in catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) in pediatric intensive care units temporally associated with a change in the needleless intravenous port. in Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. 2005. Los Angeles, CA: Slack, Inc. .

39.       Karchmer, T., et al. Needleless valve ports may be associated with a high rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection. in Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. 2005. Los Angeles, CA: Slack, Inc.